* Guest Accounts: need to allow guest accounts for grandparents, but absolutely need the ability to turn OFF the microphone for those accounts. The camera is only in the baby's room, but the microphone extends as far as sound travels, and you probably don't want your mother-in-law listening to every discussion in your home. This is a HUGE security feature that is a requirement for anything with guest accounts

No ordinary monitor, the Cocoon Cam lets you see your baby and a graph that shows breathing patterns on your smartphone. The camera watches the rise and fall of your child’s chest and sends an instant notification if something seems off. You’ll also get alerts when your child has fallen asleep, is crying or is about to wake up. Since the Cocoon Cam live streams the video and audio over WiFi, you can watch your baby from anywhere.

Video baby monitors are simple, inexpensive tools for watching your child, and HD video is not a necessity for this task. While some baby monitors have excellent video, even those with lower quality video are suitable for watching your infant. Screen resolution does not necessarily mean good image quality, so we didn't use it as a point of comparison, relying only on video performance as observed in our tests.


From each category, we hand-selected our finalists: the monitors with the most positive reviews on Amazon and parenting blogs, plus any that had all four of our parent-favorite features. Then we sent several monitors home with three different testers, to see which ones actually made parents’ lives easier, and which ones were more trouble than they’re worth.

This option doesn't have sound activation, so there is has some noise all the time similar to white noise. This sound may not be a deal breaker if it comes from a fan or noise maker in baby's room and some parents may even find the sound helpful for sleeping or reassuring them that the unit is working. The DM111 is an excellent choice for families on a budget who want to hear the baby and don't need all the frills commonly found in more expensive choices.
Adjustable Camera Pan/Tilt/Zoom: One of the most annoying things that can happen when you're using a baby monitor is closing the door and then turning on the video monitor only to realize that your camera isn't aimed at the baby at all, and you can't see a thing. Most of the baby monitor systems would require you to go back into your baby's room and manually adjust the camera. Some of the systems we review below have remotely adjustable camera angles, so you can pan side-to-side, tilt the camera angle upward/downward, and zoom in or out, without having to go back into your baby's room. Super convenient, and a critical feature to stay at the top of our best baby monitor list. It's also nice to have a relatively wide-view camera, like the Summer Infant wide baby monitor, so that even if you don't have wireless camera panning and tilting, the odds of still seeing your baby are pretty high if you have a wide-angle camera.
The most reliable type of movement sensing product is the mattress pad option. This product is placed under the mattress, usually on a hard board and will only work with some types of mattresses. This unit relays messages to a nursery device that alerts parents on a parent device or with an alarm in the nursery (model dependent). The BabySense 7 is a good example of a sensor pad that works under your baby's mattress.
Both Kay and Baldwin chose the Infant Optics DXR-8 as their top choice in video baby monitors (it also has nearly 24,000 4.4-star reviews on Amazon). The DXR-8 uses secure 2.4 GHz FHSS wireless transmission (as opposed to Wi-Fi) to send crystal clear color video and audio to the receiver, has a solid battery life, allows for remote pan, zoom, and tilt capabilities, and comes with an interchangeable zoom lens (with a wide-angle lens sold separately). Other features include a two-way intercom, remote temperature display, and the option to set the monitor to audio-only.
Eufy, a company known for its robot vacuum cleaners, is branching into baby monitors with the new $135 Security SpaceView monitor. The monitor comes with a handheld display featuring a 5-inch LCD screen and enough battery power to let you check in on the nursery throughout the day. We're waiting to get our hands on the Security SpaceView camera, but with 330-degree tilt and 110-degree pan, it sounds like there's little that will escape the 702p camera's view. Other features include night vision, noise alerts and two-way talk. Stand by for a full review.
As you’d expect, the talk back functionality and audio quality in general are great—easily better than the crude talk back features on our video monitor picks. With the battery lasting about 19 hours on a full charge, this monitor had the strongest battery life of any in our test (not entirely a fair comparison, as this is the only one with no screen to power). Rated to a range of 1,000 feet, it exceeds the range of our pick (700 feet) both as advertised and in practice during tests.

The Nest Cam lets you view live video in 1080-pixel high definition, and it has many of the same features as a standard video baby monitor. For instance, it can alert you in the event of movement, and there’s a two-way talk function built in. Nest Cams also have impressive night vision, allowing you to check in on your little ones as they sleep. Because this camera uses WiFi to send you video, there’s no range limit on it — as long as both the phone and camera are connected to the internet, you’ll be able to see what’s going on.

Range of signal: Some baby monitors have better range than others. If you live in a big house with multiple rooms, range will be a key consideration for you. Anyone who lives in a single-story house or a smaller apartment may not need as much range. Many baby monitors have an alert when you get out of range, and the packaging typically gives you an estimate of the range. Bear in mind that range varies widely from home to home. The construction of the walls between you and the baby monitor may even limit the range.
The BabySense (and other mattress sensors) require a hard surface under the mattress to work, and they don't work with all mattress types so you'll need to research your mattress to ensure it is compatible. This option is also not good for travel because of these special considerations. This product doesn't have a parent unit which means the alarm happens in the nursery with your little one and could be traumatic to sleeping little ones. If you want a movement device that works well and has a longer life than the wearable options, then the BabySense 7 is a great way to get the job done with minimal fuss.

Security is one reason Stanislav personally uses an RF monitor (like our pick) with his own daughter. He added that even that is not completely secure—“there are absolutely ways to break into a signal with radio frequency,” he said. But, noting that you have to be physically close to the house, and have the motive and ability to do it, he says it’s “a very small risk to your average parent.” In addition to the actual risks of a Wi-Fi monitor, there’s a perception that they’re vulnerable—this suspicious tone comes up often in many conversations with parents about monitors, with statements like “we’ve all heard the horror stories”2 coloring the whole discussion and suggesting, to us, that most people are really put off by the vulnerability.
Beyond security, Wi-Fi monitors have other disadvantages. In our tests, connectivity was more of an issue with Wi-Fi monitors than it was with RF monitors. We tested our Wi-Fi monitors on two separate routers and consistently had problems—we’d often lose the connection some time in the night and not even realize that the monitor had disconnected until morning. This happened with all three Wi-Fi models we tested. We never really felt confident relying on any of the connected monitors overnight, despite the fact that the modem and router were literally on the other side of a wall from the monitor. Other owners (like this one) have had the same issues.
This monitor may also be one of the simplest to set up. Just plug it in and start using it. That’s it! It’s great if you don’t have the time (or the tech knowledge) to connect your monitor to your wireless network or your phone. It allows you to quickly connect four cameras to check on the nursery, the play room, your toddler’s room and the living room all at once. It’s like your own kid-monitoring surveillance system. You can choose an 8-second rotation that automatically switches between rooms to let you know what’s going on.
The Levana Lila video product is a dedicated camera and parent unit which means you don't need to tie up your personal device or use the internet. This option is user-friendly and has a respectable range that could work for most average size homes. The Lila has long-lasting battery life and a reasonable price with fewer features than much of the competition, but that is part of what makes it easy enough for grandma to use.
Baby's exposure could potentially be even lower if parents place the camera on a wall at least 15 feet from baby (a distance still good for night vision to work properly with most monitors). Given the sensitivity of baby's developing systems we recommend placing the monitor as far away from the baby as possible while still being able to utilize the night vision as intended and see baby's face to determine if they are awake or sleeping at a glance. For most of the products, this distance is between 10-15 feet from the baby.

The Vtech DM221 offers the features you need, coupled with the best sound clarity in our review of sound products. The DM221 comes with easy to set sound activation and adjustable mic sensitivity to help create a peaceful environment for a quality night's sleep with a parent device that only makes a peep when your little one does. The DM221's parent unit talk to baby feature sounds natural on the baby's side so your infant won't be alarmed by a robotic or static sound found in some of the competition. This unit is a budget-friendly choice that will work for almost any family.
Larger homes or locations with more than 4 or 5 walls between the camera and parent unit might be stuck with a Wi-Fi monitor. Most of the dedicated monitors only worked up to 4 walls, with the exception of the Project Nursery 4.3 that stopped working at 3. The Philips Avent SCD630 has the longest range for dedicated monitors in this review, with an impressive 92 ft through 5 walls, so if your needs are greater than that, then none of the dedicated monitors we tested are likely to work for your situation. Wi-Fi connected cameras, on the other hand, are limited only by the wireless router location in relation to the camera and parent unit, and the strength and speed of your Wi-Fi connection. If necessary, routers can often be moved, or range extenders added, to increase the range between the components if the Wi-Fi monitor struggles to keep a clear or consistent connection. Purchasing a monitor from a venue with a simple return policy like Amazon means you'll be able to test the monitor in your house to determine how well it works without the risk of being stuck with a useless product.
You may have a baby now, but you still need a little time to yourself. A baby bouncer can be a real lifesaver when you need a break. In our experience, the Fisher-Price My Little Snugabunny Deluxe Bouncer is the best bouncer for providing a safe, comfy, reasonably priced place for your baby to stay contained, entertained, and — if you're lucky — drift off to dreamland.

The LeFun is an inexpensive Wi-Fi camera that makes internet watching affordable for almost every family. This useful camera works with your personal device and is the only option here that features true pan and scan features to move the camera around the room remotely. The image quality is also impressive given the lower price and simple design. This camera is a good choice if your house is bigger or you'll be spanning more than 3-5 walls between rooms where range could become an issue.
Notifications and alerts work by sending a message or email to your device when motion or sound has occurred. This feature is only found in the Wi-Fi monitors, and isn't the best feature for baby because it comes after the fact (sometimes up to 30 min or more after), it does not offer details of the type of sound or motion detected, and could get annoying with useless and excessive messages being sent. In the end, we prefer sound activation over notifications and feel that alerts and notifications aren't all that useful for keeping tabs on your baby.
Netgear brought the best features of its Arlo line of home security cameras to its first baby monitor. That includes Full HD video, night vision, sound and motion detection, two-way audio, 24/7 recording, and free cloud storage. Netgear also used feedback from Arlo owners to add a nursery-centric spin to the Arlo Baby, with a multicolored LED nightlight, a built-in music player with nine lullabies, environmental sensors, and artificial intelligence that can recognize your child’s cries.
Wireless devices and dirty electricity are almost impossible to get away from in our current technological age, but it doesn't mean we can't take steps to limit the exposure to ourselves and our children. Even though the current evidence is somewhat conflicting, and shows we need more studies and research because the potential is there for harm, parents should make informed and thoughtful decisions regarding their children's exposure to potential health risks, especially given that their bodies are developing and more susceptible to this type of radiation. We can't say for certain that monitors pose a health risk, but we also can't say for certain that they don't. Given this information, we feel it is important to test and report on the EMF levels of each monitor so parents can decide for themselves which product fits in best with their goals and concerns.
The Wi-Fi monitors all have lower EMF readings than the dedicated options with the lowest average EMF readings being 0.87 for the LeFun C2 720P Wi-Fi and 0.92 for the Nest Cam Indoor Wi-Fi with the reader 6 ft from the camera. The lowest average value for the dedicated monitors at 6 ft is 1.89 for the Infant Optics DXR-8 and 1.91 for the Philips Avent SCD630.
We got our hands on this monitor in mid-2018 for testing. It's a wifi baby monitor, just like many other options on this list, meaning that it connects to your wireless router to stream a digital video and audio signal to your smart phone wherever you are in the world. What's unique about this Safety 1st wifi baby monitor is that it also includes a wireless speaker pod that you can place anywhere in your house so you can listen in on your baby when you don't want to turn on your smart phone. This is nice during the night when you don't want to turn on your bright screen, or when your phone battery is low and you need to recharge. And the speaker pod has a batter that lasts for about 10-12 hours, so you can easily bring it into different rooms. So that's a nice added feature. And there are some additional features worth mentioning. First, it streams video in high definition 720p, though we do point out that it's basically impossible to stream 720p in real-time to your phone unless you're on the same local network (i.e. if you're at home). But that limitation isn't unique to the Safety 1st, and any wifi monitor that appears to be streaming in real-time HD is likely buffering the video for several seconds before it gets to you (so what you're seeing is delayed). Second, we were impressed with the nice wide-angle camera (130-degrees horizontal field of view), which means that it's more accommodating if you want to position the camera closer to the crib. Third, you can set up movement and sound alerts and customize the sensitivity of the alerts on your app to make sure you're getting an alert when it's important but also avoiding too many false alarms. We liked that you can change the sensitivity of the alerts, and thought that feature worked pretty well in our testing. The auto-recorded 30-second clips were also a nice touch so you can see what was going on when the alert was triggered. Some other things we liked were that the night vision was pretty good quality, you can zoom in and out (but you can't pan or tilt) using the app, there's a two-way intercom so you can talk to your baby, and you can expand the system to multiple cameras that you can toggle between using the app (you can't view multiple cameras simultaneously, however). So how does this wifi baby monitor compare to the other top rated wifi monitors on this list? Well, there's some good and bad. Setup was pretty easy, so that's definitely good, though the owner's manual was a bit difficult to understand at times. And once we got it running, it seemed to stay up and running pretty reliably, so that's also a plus. Also, there's no necessary subscription to store the 30-second clips you record for 30 days in the cloud. So here are some things that we didn't like about this monitor: first, many times when we open the app on our phone, the live stream doesn't connect immediately - sometimes we would restart the app, and other times we'd just need to wait several seconds. That's frustrating when you just received an alert and go to see what's going on, but can't. Second, if your internet goes down you're basically screwed. Unlike the Nanit and Lollipop, it will not revert to streaming over your local area network in the event of an internet outage - so even if you're at home, you won't be able to use the app or otherwise view the video. Third, the camera has a bright little light on it, which we ended up covering with electrical tape. Finally, we found the speaker pod unusually difficult to use, and were disappointed that a charger wasn't even included with it (or maybe it was just missing from our box?). Anyway, so there are some really nice features and high potential for this to be a great baby monitor, but in the end we found several limitations that made it difficult for us to justify spending upwards of $200 on it (note that it's about $150 without the speaker pod). But we'll let you make that decision. Interested? You can check out the Safety 1st HD wifi Baby Monitor here.

You might prefer one that has lights as well as sound. All the audio monitors we rated had this feature. The Philips Avent DECT SCD510, which sells for about $120, has a series of small LED lights on the parent monitor. The louder the sound in your baby's room, the more lights go on, so you'll notice his crying even with the unit set on mute. Audio monitors are generally less expensive than audio/video models.
Testing battery life for all the monitors was for the parent device only. While some of the dedicated options have a battery in the camera in the event of a power outage, most do not, and they are not intended for use as an all-night option. So while we would support a cordless camera for monitoring baby, due to safety concerns with babies and strangulation hazards, none of the products in our review offer this.
Electromagnetic fields (EMF), or dirty electricity, is something we think needs to be discussed when talking about wireless baby monitors. Given that all wireless devices give off some level of EMF, we feel it would be negligent not to discuss the potential for possible health risks associated with the kind of radiation emitted by wireless products. While the jury is still out, and studies being done are not conclusive yet, there is enough evidence that EMF might potentially cause health problems that we feel it is better to be cautious when it comes to children's exposure than to ignore the possibilities.

Being a new parent is an exciting and occasionally stressful journey into uncharted territory. There are so many things to learn about your baby and all the different products you need to keep your little one happy and healthy. One of the most important and expensive purchases you'll make when you're outfitting your nursery is buying a baby monitor.
Netgear brought the best features of its Arlo line of home security cameras to its first baby monitor. That includes Full HD video, night vision, sound and motion detection, two-way audio, 24/7 recording, and free cloud storage. Netgear also used feedback from Arlo owners to add a nursery-centric spin to the Arlo Baby, with a multicolored LED nightlight, a built-in music player with nine lullabies, environmental sensors, and artificial intelligence that can recognize your child’s cries.
Check the return policy: Every family is different, so it can be hard to choose the perfect baby monitor for your needs. For that reason, we recommend you look into each product's return policy. Some companies are very good about letting you return baby monitors, but others are not. You may need to try a few different ones out before you find the winner. Obviously, we hope this guide assists you in making the right choice, but it's always good to have a backup plan. We've noted the return policy for each baby monitor we recommend in this guide.

iBaby makes a really confusing range of baby monitors. From cheapest to most expensive this includes the iBaby Monitors M2, M2S, and M2 Plus, iBaby M6, M6T, and M6S, and the new iBaby M7. The M2 series is usually under $100 and is pretty poorly reviewed overall. The M6 series is usually about $125 and is decently reviewed. Finally, the new M7 is brand new and only differs from the M6S in that it has a smell detector and night sky projector that can shine the moon and stars onto the ceiling (our review of the M7 is above). There's truly a lot to love about the iBaby M6S. It looks great, is pretty easy to setup, and has a ton of appealing features. Some highlights are that it uses 1080p high definition video, it senses room temperature and humidity levels, has an air quality sensor (measures the presence of volatile organic compounds or VOCs in the nursery), is dual band wifi compatible (2.4 and 5GHz), and a two-way intercom. It also can record HD videos, remotely pan (rotate) and tilt up/down, and you can setup alerts for motion, sound, and VOCs (from 1 to 4 with 4 being best). So it basically has everything that might be on your list of baby monitor essential features, and we were really excited to set it up. Out of the box, we found it easy to download the app to our smart phone (Android or Apple), connect to the monitor and connect it to wifi, and get things up and running. A couple notes here - first, your wifi password needs to be shorter than 32 characters or the app won't accept it, and second, there is no way to manually set an IP address for the camera. When we used it on our home wifi network, we found that the images were clear and decently fast (low lag), and the night vision was high-quality and not too grainy. We especially liked the pan and tilt features from the app, which allows you to move the camera's view angle around without going into the nursery (and it uses a cool screen-swipe gesture to do it). Once we left our home's wifi connection and tried to connect to the camera from a 4G LTE or a different wifi network, that's when we started to run into problems. It was choppy and laggy, which to be honest is what we expected when attempting to stream 1080p HD video outside of your home network. So we changed the resolution settings on the app (Settings - Display Settings - Resolution) to downgrade it to a lower quality stream; that seemed to help a bit. We also had difficulty connecting to the camera at times, whether we were at home or elsewhere, which was one of the more frustrating things about the iBaby Monitor M6S. The temperature and humidity sensors seemed to work pretty well, and we confirmed their accuracy with a separate thermometer and hygrometer (they were pretty decent in accuracy). For the two-way intercom, the speaker in the camera seemed pretty poor quality so it was hard to hear my voice when attempting to speak to (or sing to) our baby. Finally, we had some issues with alerts coming through to the app as intended. We setup the temperature, humidity, and VOC alerts, and had really intermittent alerts when we tested them out. The temperature and humidity sensors seemed to be reading just fine, they just weren't reliably triggering an alert when they deviated from a range. For example, we set a temperature alert for 80 degrees then blew a hair dryer at the camera; it warmed way up, but the alert wasn't triggered, so that was frustrating. We didn't test the VOC sensor, though one could imagine you could open up a can of paint next to the camera and see if it sends an alert. So overall, we have a decent wifi baby monitor that has some excellent features but also leaves a lot to be desired in the reliability department. Interested? You can check out the iBaby M6S Baby Monitor here. 
Finding the right monitoring device for your family can be challenging given the number of options and the varieties of devices on the market. However, there is a good choice for every family on this list. Once you determine your needs and wants, the field is relatively easy to narrow. You can't go wrong with any of the winners on this list, but if you need more information or details, be sure to check out our more detailed reviews on each monitoring product type Sound Monitor, Video Monitor, and Movement Monitor.
If you want to know everything about your baby, down to the heartbeat — the Angelcare AC315 is our top motion-sensor monitor. The sensor mat slips under the mattress in your baby’s crib, and if it detects no movement after 20 seconds, it sends a loud alarm to the baby and parent units. Its touchscreen can be a little finicky. The Baby Delight is less prone to false alarms; however, our parent testers were concerned that the small clip-on sensor might be a choking hazard.
"This product has nearly saved my daughter’s life! It also helped me sleep at night. As a new mom I was already constantly waking up to check on my newborn baby girl. The owlet helped me get more sleep. Instead of waking up every 5 minutes to check on her, i would sleep peacefully while my baby slept knowing that the owlet would alert me if anything was wrong. It did go off once while I dosed off while breastfeeding and it literally saved her life. I love this product and feel that it was a great investment. My daughter is 8 months old is and we still use it!"
The iBaby M6S Wi-Fi earned a 9 of 10 for features in our tests. This monitor offers features that increase convenience for parents and things that are fun for baby. For parent convenience, this camera works on any iOS device, can be accessed from anywhere with internet or cell phone reception (with a data plan), will work with multiple cameras, and has sound activation. The user interface is intuitive for experienced iOS users, and the zoom/pan/tilt features work well. This monitor features a true remote-controlled camera with the widest field of view range in the group, motion detection, sound activation, and it has built-in remote-controlled lullabies that include the ability to add your music of choice or your recorded voice. The iBaby M6S also monitors the temperature, humidity, and air quality of baby's room so parents can ensure baby is comfy and cozy. If all that wasn't enough, the app will remain running when using other apps, and when parents turn the device's screen off. Possibly the only things lacking are an automatic screen wake and sleep, which we think isn't that big of a deal.

For parents who want to monitor their baby’s cries from the office, or the gym, or Tahiti, the BB-8-looking iBaby M6S syncs right up to your house Wi-Fi connection ⏤ so instead of using a dedicated handheld receiver, you watch all the action on a smartphone app. It offers impressive 1080p HD video (with record function), a 360-degree view with 110-degree tilt, and an array of high-tech sensors including motion, sound, in-room temperature, air quality, and humidity. The only thing it seemingly won’t do is fix your X-Wing fighter. Although it makes up for it with night vision, two-way talk, and 10 programmed lullabies and bedtime stories, to which you can even add your own voice.
Wireless devices and dirty electricity are almost impossible to get away from in our current technological age, but it doesn't mean we can't take steps to limit the exposure to ourselves and our children. Even though the current evidence is somewhat conflicting, and shows we need more studies and research because the potential is there for harm, parents should make informed and thoughtful decisions regarding their children's exposure to potential health risks, especially given that their bodies are developing and more susceptible to this type of radiation. We can't say for certain that monitors pose a health risk, but we also can't say for certain that they don't. Given this information, we feel it is important to test and report on the EMF levels of each monitor so parents can decide for themselves which product fits in best with their goals and concerns.
Video products add the element of visual peeking on your baby, so you can see if your baby is crying but calming down without you or if you need to make your way to their side. Most video products work well in the dark and have adequate sound so you can see and hear what is happening in the room. Some options are dedicated with a camera that talks to a parent unit, like the Levana Lila while others use your Wi-Fi to send information from the camera to your personal device like the Nest Cam. Wi-Fi options are great for larger houses where range could be an issue, and it's also nice for away from home monitoring. While video images are not mandatory for getting a good night's sleep, they do provide more information that can help you determine your little one's needs before you get out of bed. With the price of video products being lower than ever, it is no longer considered a luxury product and many parents are choosing this style over sound only products. However, proceed with caution! Spying on your newborn can be addictive and lead to less sleep which defeats the purpose of a getting a monitoring device in the first place.
If you'd like to keep watch over your little one while they slumber, pick a video baby monitor. Whether you're at home or a little further away, you can use a real-time baby monitor camera to connect to your WiFi and check in on baby during nap times. Colour monitors work a little like your regular tablet, making them easy to pop in your bag or prop up on the coffee table. Choose from models that track temperature, alert you to sound and movement and even sing lullabies to settle baby if they get restless.
The Levana Lila is the second highest ranking dedicated monitor in the review, and 5th overall. This budget-friendly option has the longest battery life of any dedicated monitor we tested and scored well enough for ease of use and sound clarity that you won't be frustrated. Unfortunately, this monitor has a shorter range than the Philips Avent SCD630 and the fewest features in the group (which makes it easier to use). So it may not be a good choice for parents that want all the bells and whistles. This monitor does sport 2-way talk to baby, sound activation, and automatic screen wake/sleep, which are some of the most important features in our mind. The Lila has no zoom, and the field of view is rather small for a camera that is not remotely operated (no pan or tilt). However, if you want a dedicated monitor for the simplicity and peace of mind with less chance of a dropped signal, and budget is a factor, then the Lila can't be beaten.
The price of the Infant Optics, at about $150, is on the higher end for baby monitors. As much as we wanted to recommend a more affordable option, we found their shortcomings to be major enough—terrible video quality and poor connections were common—that we couldn’t recommend one. The Infant Optics offers a better value even though it’s among the more expensive options out there. Many people use these daily for years, which helps justify the investment, and the reports of reliable customer service from other customers are reassuring. If you have to spend less, go audio-only.

The best baby monitor apps allow you to monitor baby using only your existing devices, like phones, tablets or even computers. One device acts a transmitter in baby’s room, and you use another device to monitor baby. Some apps only have audio functionality, but others have both audio and video. As a plus, the best baby monitor apps often have cool features that traditional baby monitors don’t have, like remote capabilities. However, some users complain that they can be somewhat unreliable.
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